X-ray Diffractometer (XRD)

X-ray Diffractometer (XRD)

To determine the crystallinity and crystal structure of a material, HASETRI offers the fingerprint analysis: X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The purity of the raw materials as well as the composites can be well understood by XRD. It utilises the Bragg’s law to identify the presence of any material; possessing a unique diffraction pattern. Powder and thin film samples can be characterized by XRD with the variation of 2θ from 2° to 90°. The main features of XRD related to polymers are:

  • Indexing of Crystal Structures
  • The lattice planes and miller indices can be determined by XRD which predicts the unit cell geometry. For the layered fillers, the d-spacing is a vital parameter which affects the properties. This d-spacing can be easily measured by this instrument.

  • Microstructure
  • Calculate the crystallite size of the materials by analysing the diffraction pattern from XRD. Dislocation density can also be calculated.

  • Degree of Crystallinity
  • Polymers can never be 100% crystalline. Therefore, one of the primary applications of XRD is to determine the percentage of crystalline and amorphous phases.

  • Molecular Orientation
  • Molecular orientation of the materials is a dominant feature in control of the mechanical and physical properties of compounds. This can be quantified from diffraction data.

  • Residual Stress
  • Residual stress is very important property for the polymeric materials. But as it is an extrinsic property, direct measurement is not possible. In X-ray diffraction residual stress measurement, the strain in the crystal lattice is measured, and the residual stress producing the strain is calculated assuming a linear elastic distortion of the crystal lattice.

    For thin film samples, normal X-ray diffraction does not provide adequate diffraction pattern. So, Grazing Incidence Diffraction (GID) is used to overcome this restriction.